Q. What is an e-token?
Ans. An E-tokens is a secure hardware device that contains private and public key certificates, and a cache of other certificates. E-Tokens enhance the security of data on public and private networks. E-tokens can be used to generate and provide secure storage for passwords and Digital certificates, for secure authentication, digital signing and encryption.
Q. What is a hash algorithm?
Ans. A hash algorithm is a function that converts a data string into a numeric string output of a fixed length which is generally much smaller than the original data. Hash algorithm can be used in the encryption and decryption of digital signatures. The hash function transforms the digital signature, then both the hash value and signature are sent to the receiver. The receiver uses the same hash function to generate the hash value and then compares it to that received with the message. If the hash values are the same, it is likely that the message was transmitted without errors.
Q. What is Cryptographic Service Provider?
Ans. Cryptography Service Provider or CSPs, provide hardware and software based encryption and decryption. A CSP is responsible for creating and revoking keys, and using them to perform a variety of cryptographic operations.
Q. What is SSL (secure socket layer)?
Ans. An SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a standard security technology. It provides a secure connection between internet browsers and websites, allowing you to transmit private data online. Websites frequently use SSL technology for secure online monetary transactions through credit cards or internet banking.
Q. What is MIME?
Ans. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, (MIME) is an Internet standard format that allows the attachment and sending of non-text files including compressed files, sound clips, graphics file, videos to an e-mail.
Q. What is Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME)?
Ans. S/MIME, which abbreviates from Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, is a standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data i.e. an email message. It defines the specifications to support the signing and encryption of e-mail security to be transmitted across the Internet.
Q. What do X.509 and X.500 mean?
Ans. X.509: - is an standard for a public key infrastructure (PKI) to verify that a public key belongs to the user, computer or service identity contained within the certificate.An X.509 certificate contains information about the identity to which a certificate is issued and the identity that issued it.
X.500: - The X.500 directory service is a global directory service whose components cooperate to manage information about objects including countries, organizations, people and machines in a worldwide scope. It provides the ability to look up information by name and also to browse and search for information.
Q. What is Message Digest?
Ans. Message digests are designed to protect the integrity of a piece of data or media to detect changes and alterations to any part of a message.
They are a type of cryptography utilizing hash values that can warn the copyright owner of any modifications introduced to their work.
Each message digest hash number is specified for a particular file containing protected work. Thus, one message digest is assigned to particular data content. It refers to any change made deliberately or accidentally to the protected work. It also prompts the owner to identify the modification as well as the individual making the change.
Q. What is PKCS ?
Ans. The Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) are a set of inter vendor standard protocols for making possible secure information exchange on the Internet using a public key infrastructure (PKI). PKCS or public key cryptography standards are formulated and published by the RSA security which also promotes the use of cryptographic techniques. It can be said that PKCS includes all the techniques that are used in modern day cryptography.
Q. What is Smart Card?
Ans. A smart card is a plastic card which looks similar to a credit card. It has a built-in microprocessor and memory which is used for identification during financial transactions. When it is inserted into a reader, it transfers data to and from a central computer. It is more secure than a magnetic stripe card. It can also be programmed for Self-destruction to prevent its misuse. Self destruction is initiated if an unauthorized authentication is being performed several times.
Q. What is HSM card ?
Ans. A hardware security module (HSM) is a hardware device that stores and secures digital keys for authentication and provides cryptographic processing. They are generally in the form of a plug-in card or an external device that is attached directly to a computer or network server.
Q. What is MD5 ?
Ans. The MD5, message-digest algorithm is a widely used cryptographic hash function that is used to verify data integrity through the creation of a 128-bit message digest from data input. MD5 has been utilized in a wide variety of cryptographic applications, it is also used to verify data integrity.